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bbc.co.uk – The British Broadcasting Corporation is the UK’s national broadcaster. Based at the Broadcasting House in London, it is the world’s oldest national broadcaster and the world’s largest broadcaster by employees, employing a total of 22,000 staff, of which around 19,000 are in the public broadcasting sector.
The BBC is recognized under a Royal Charter and operates under a contract with the Secretary for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. Their work is primarily funded by the annual television license fee which allows all British households, businesses and organizations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer recovery. The fee is usual by the British government, agreed by Parliament, and is used to fund the BBC’s radio, TV and online services covering the UK’s countries and territories. Since 1 April 2014, it has also merged with BBC World Service (launched in 1932 as BBC Empire Service), which broadcasts in 28 languages and offers comprehensive TV, radio and online services in Arabic and Persian.
A quarter of the BBC’s income comes from its commercial subsidiary BBC Studios (formerly BBC Worldwide), which sells BBC programs and services internationally and distributes the BBC’s 24-hour international English news services, BBC World News and BBC.com. , presented by bbc.co.uk Global News Limited. In 2009, the company was gave the Queen’s Award in recognition of its international achievements.
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History – bbc.co.uk
The birth of British broadcasting, 1920 to 1922
Britain’s first live public program was made in June 1920 from the Marconi’s Wireless Telegraph Company factory in Chelmsford. It was sponsored by Lord Northcliffe of the Daily Mail and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. Melba’s broadcast captured the public’s imagination and marked a turning point in the British public’s attitude towards radio.
However, this public eagerness was not shared in official circles, where such transmissions were carried out to intercept important military and civilian communications. In the late 1920s, pressure from these sectors and unrest among officials at the licensing authority, the General Post Office (GPO), was sufficient to ban further broadcasts from Chemmsford.
But by 1922, the GPO had conventional nearly 100 applications for a broadcast license and decided to overturn its ban after a petition from 63 wireless associations with 3,000 members. Eager to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed granting a single broadcast license to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufacturers.
Known as the British Broadcasting Company Limited, Scottish Calvinist John Reith was appointed general manager in December 1922, just weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. L. Stanton Jefferies was its first music director. The company would be financed by royalties on sales of BBC wireless receiver sets from authorized domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian mandate to “inform, educate and entertain”.
From Private Company to Public Service Company, 1923 to 1926
Soon the financial arrangements were inadequate. Sales of the sets were disappointing as hobbyists built their own receivers and listeners bought competing unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had reached an impasse, and Postmaster General Sykes called for a review by the broadcast committee.
To deal with the BBC’s immediate financial crisis, the committee recommended a short-term restructuring with better enforcement of license fees and a greater share of license revenue between the bbc.co.uk and the GPO. This was followed by a simple license fee of 10 shillings to finance the broadcasts.
The BBC’s broadcast monopoly lasted for the duration of its current broadcasting license and was as evident as the advertising ban. To avoid competition with newspapers, Fleet Street persuaded the government to ban the news before 7pm, and the BBC had to get all news from outside news agencies.
In mid-1925, further analysis, this time by the Crawford Committee, found the future of broadcasting. By this time, the BBC, under Reith’s leadership, had built a consensus in favor of continuing the unified broadcast service (monopoly), but still needed more money to finance rapid expansion.
Wireless manufacturers were eager to get out of the money-losing alliance with Reith, eager to see the BBC as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise. The Crawford Committee’s recommendations were published in March of the following year and were still being considered by the GPO when the general strike broke out in May 1926. The strike temporarily halted newspaper production, and when restrictions on news packages were lifted, the BBC has suddenly become the main source of crisis-era news.
1927 to 1939 – bbc.co.uk
The British Broadcasting Corporation came into being on 1 January 1927, with Reith – newly knighted – named its first director general. To represent its (stated) mission and values, the new company adopted a logo, including the motto “Nation will speak peace to the nation”.
British radio audiences have no choice but to tune in to the BBC’s high-quality programming. Reith, a strict moral administrator, was in full command. His motto was to convey “the best in all fields of human knowledge, effort and achievement.
preserving a high moral tone is paramount”. Reith managed to build a high wall of American-style free-for-alls on radio, where the goal was to attract the biggest audience and thereby garner the biggest advertising revenue.
There is no paid advertising on the BBC; All revenue came from the defined tax. However, the intellectual public liked it immensely. At a time when American, Australian and Canadian stations were attracting large audiences to their local teams with coverage of baseball, rugby and hockey, the BBC emphasized a national service rather than a regional audience.
Boat racing was well covered, as were tennis and horse racing, but the BBC was reluctant to spend much of its time on long games of football or cricket, regardless of their popularity.
BBC Versus Other Media – bbc.co.uk
The broadcast’s success fueled a rivalry between the bbc.co.uk and more established media such as theatres, concert halls and the recording industry. In 1929, the BBC complained that many comedians’ agents refused to sign broadcast contracts because they feared that doing so would harm the artist “by spoiling his material” and that it would “devalue the artist”.
On the other hand, the BBC was “more interested” in cooperating with record companies, which “in recent years have not been slow to record. Choirs, orchestras, dance bands, etc. ”
Radio plays were so popular that by 1929 the BBC had received 6,000 manuscripts, most of which were written for the stage and of little broadcast value:
note saying Musical broadcasts also gained great popularity in the 1930s, for example the friendly and comprehensive organ broadcasts at St George’s Hall in London by Reginald Ford, who held the official role of the BBC’s Team Theater Organist. from 1936 to 1938.
Second World War
Television broadcasting suspend from 1 September 1939 to 7 June 1946 during World War II, and it was left to BBC radio stations such as Reginald Ford to keep the nation’s spirits up. The bbc.co.uk moved most of its radio operations from London, initially to Bristol and then to Bedford.
The concerts broadcast from the Corn Exchange; The Trinity Chapel at St Paul’s Church in Bedford was the studio for the daily service from 1941 to 1945, and in 1941, during the darkest days of the war, the Archbishops of Canterbury and York came to St Paul to visit England and the United Kingdom. World on National Day of Prayer. During the war he was with the station for two years, including George Orwell on the BBC staff.
As prime minister during the war, Winston Churchill gave 33 major radio war speeches, all broadcast on the BBC in England. On June 18, 1940, French General Charles de Gaulle, exiled to London as leader of the Free France, gave a speech broadcast by the BBC urging the French people not to surrender to the Nazis.
In 1938, John Reith and the British government, the Ministry of Information created specifically for the Second World War, designed an apparatus of censorship for the inevitability of war.
Thanks to the BBC’s advances in shortwave radio technology, the company was able to broadcast around the world during World War II. In Europe, the BBC’s European Service will gather intelligence and information related to current war events in English.
Later 20th Century – bbc.co.uk
There was a widely circulate urban myth that following the resumption of the BBC television service after the war. Broadcaster Leslie Mitchell said: “As I said before, we were very rudely interrupte” In fact. The first person to appear it was Jasmine Bligh as the broadcast resumed and the words “Good afternoon everyone. How are you? Do you remember me, Jasmine Bly?
Competition for the BBC introduce in 1955 with the commercial and independent television network ITV. However, the BBC’s monopoly over radio services would continue until 8 October 1973. When the newly renamed Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA), the UK’s first independent local radio station. LBC, began broadcasting in the area from London.
As a result of the 1962 Pilkington Committee Report. In which the BBC was praise for the quality and scope of its production. And ITV heavily criticiz for not providing enough quality programmes, it decide to give the BBC a second television.
From 2000 to 2011 – bbc.co.uk
In 2002, some television and radio channels were reorganize bbc.co.uk. Four replaced BBC Knowledge as the BBC’s arts and documentaries channel. CBBC, which had been the BBC for children since 1985. Split into CBBC and CBeebies, for younger children. Two new services were getting a digital channel: the CBBC Channel and the CBeebies Channel. In adding to the television channels, new digital radio positions were creat: 1Xtra, 6 Music and BBC7. BBC 1Xtra was a sister position to Radio 1 and specializing in modern black music. BBC 6 Music specializing in alternative music genres and BBC 7 specializing in archives. Talk and children’s programmes.
2011 to Present
Further cuts were proclaim on 6 October 2011, so the BBC achiev a full 20% cut in its budget. After freezing license fees in October 2010, reducing staff by 2,000 and sending a further 1,000 to development.
MediaCityUK in Salford. BBC Three moved online only in 2016. Sharing more programs between stations and channels, sharing radio news bulletins, reducing a lot of repetition in schedules. Including BBC Two daytime and some original programmes.
BBC HD close on 26 March 2013 and replace by bbc.co.uk Two’s HD simulcast; However, full funding for flagship programs, other channels and CBBC and CBeebies will maintain. Several BBC facilities sold, including the New Broadcasting House on Oxford Road in Manchester.
Several key departments have moved to Broadcasting House. In central London and MediaCityUK in Salford Particularly since the closure of the BBC Television Center in March 2013. On 16 Feb 2016, the BBC Three television facility discontinue and replace by its subsidiary Digital Outlet. The name targets its younger audience with web series and other content.
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Headquarters and Regional Offices
Broadcasting House on Portland Place in central London is the official headquarters of the BBC. It is home to the sixth of the BBC’s ten national radio networks. BBC Radio 1, BBC Radio 1Xtra, BBC Asian Network, BBC Radio 3, BBC Radio 4 and BBC Radio 4Xtra.
It is also home to BBC News, which moved into the BBC Television Center building in 2013. The building’s facade features statues of Prospero and Ariel from William Shakespeare’s play The Tempest, sculpted by Eric Gill. The renovation of the Broadcasting House began in 2002 and complete in 2012.
Until its closure in late March 2013, BBC Television was based at the BBC Television Centre. A purpose-built television facility opened in 1960 in White City, four miles west of central London. The facility has hosted many famous guests and events over the years. And its name and image are familiar to many British citizens.
Nearby, the BBC White City campus is home to several program offices, located at Center House. The Media Center and the Broadcast Center. It was in this area around Shepherd’s Bush that most BBC staff worked.
As part of a major redevelopment of the bbc.co.uk property, the entire BBC News operation moved from. The News Center at the BBC Television Center to. The refurbished Broadcasting House to create. What has been describe as “one of the largest live broadcasting centers in the world”.
In 2004, the BBC contracted its former BBC technology division. To German electronics and engineering firm Siemens IT Solutions and Services (SIS), outsourcing its IT systems, telephony and broadcast technology.
When Atos Origin bought Siemens’ SIS division for €850 million (£720 million) in December 2010. The BBC support contract also awarded to Atos. In July 2011 the BBC informed the team that its technical support would become an Atos service.
Siemens employees working on the BBC contract were transfer to Atos; The BBC’s IT systems are now manage by Atos.
In 2011, the BBC’s chief financial officer, Zarin Patel. Told the House of Commons Public Accounts Committee after criticism of the BBC’s management of large. IT projects by Siemens (such as the Digital Media Initiative).
The BBC’s partnership with Atos will be instrumental. In achieving cost savings of around £64 million as part of the BBC’s ‘Delivering Quality First’ programme. In 2012, then BBC chief technology officer John Linwood expressed confidence in the service improvements to. The BBC technology arrangement that Atos had brought in.
He add that supplier liability reinforce after some high-profile technical failures during the partnership with Siemens.